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T.D Rice as Jim Crow

Stage Name

Birth Name

Minstrel Shows / Blackface


Note: this page deals with Racist terminology, Racism, Views, terms, etc. that this site/ owners do not use or feel as appropriate. They are used to display the realism of the racial times as reported in the articles of those times. This is not meant to be a precise history on Minstrelsy, only an overview of what it was. Most of the article is taken from the New York Clipper Articles.

      The term minstrel means "Little Servant". The Minstrel has a long history which goes way back to the harlequins and Court Poets, Troubadors, Court Jesters of Kings ... circa 11th century or even farther back if we want to include the pantomime. We will not be covering those here. Watch this clip for that if your interested [Clip].

      Negro Minstrelsy: (Wandering Minstrels) Its obvious starting place and time has been traced back to 1800.  However blackface performers/ Acts have been traced farther back. Some say that when the Negro first introduced the banjo, that from that instrument alone we begin to get at the notes of Ethiopian minstrelsy. The gourd banjo from Africa, a pre modern banjo instrument no doubt, has been in existence nearly as long as that race of people. Consequently, it is impossible to get at its origin from that source alone. The point is this: who first made pretensions to imitate the colored race or introduce their quaint and humorous character to the public?  

      In SHAKESPERE'S "Othello" ... 'the Moor's of Venice' in 1603 was of the first Blackface Minstrel on stage and in theatre. But we are really thinking here of the then popular Minstrel shows of the 1800's. The Negro slave of the Southern States, toiling in the fields of cotton, cane or corn, created an interest and a sympathy. His songs and peculiar dances appealed to all classes and the white man began to imitate him in his mannerisms. His queer antics and style of vocalism sprang into popularity. The instruments used by the slaves were very primitive. The banjo, bones, tambourine and violin. Acts included many variations, dances and dialogues of the colored Negroes. Most songs they used were called "darkie songs" of that time.

      Some of these "Acts" were very simple and others much more complex. Everything was a close imitation of the Negro, his dialect being one of the essential points necessary for a comedian to possess. Grimaces, contortions, shuffling walks, very comic and ragged garments, large shoes, small hats or battered high hats and old umbrellas, with strange looking carpet bags were absolutely part and parcel of the comedian’s outfit. In the middle 1850's he added grotesque female garments for a lecture on “Woman’s Rights” or old military clothes to show the return from the Mexican War, which began in 1846. He also became an orator on the questions of the day as a stump speaker. This enabled the comedian to get off lots of local allusions.

      Before 1843 each circus had one or two “Negro singers,” as they then designated them. As well as the Medicine show would occasionally have a 'Darky Act' as well. They performed on the banjo or violin, with bones or tambourine, and imitated the (racial stereotyping) Negro in all his peculiarity of dance or shouting songs. Notably among these circus singers were Frank Brower, Dick Pelham, Billy Whitlock, old Dan Emmett, Wash Donaldson, George Washington Dixon, Ben Mallory and Joe Sweeney.

      Some of the musical theatre and minstrel performers of the 1800s … from the beginnings of the Jim Crow act by Thomas Rice in Cincinnati … "Zip Coon" performer George Washington Dixon … Dick Pelham ... Edwin P. Christy, George Christy and the Christy’s Minstrels … Ira Aldridge (as "Othello") ... Ralph Keeler ... Thomas D. Rice ... Charley White ... Dan Emmett ... G. Swayne Buckley, ... and Dan Bryant. Before women entered the field, the male actors would dress 'en-transvestite' ( Not same as today) or as the female role if one was used. The first lady to “black up” and play with the minstrels is Mrs. Harriet Phillips with the Virginia Serenaders in May, 1848, in the burlesque of “The Bohemian Girl,” in the Chestnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia. The first female minstrels were presented by the Western Sisters in their play of “The Three Fast Men,” in which they presented a first part, March 9, 1857, at the Boston National Theatre. In the 1846, William Henry Lane ( Master Juba) and Thomas Dilward became the first African Americans to perform on the minstrel stage.

      Prior to the organization of the first regular minstrel company in Boston on January of 1842. The idea was original; The cause of their organization was simply to make up a combination of Negro stereotyping stuff for a one night only show, which was expressly for the benefit of Pelham, who at that time was dancing between the pieces at the Chatham Theatre. Most of these performers would switch from one troupe to another over time.... One day they are a Virginia Minstrel and next week a Kentucky Minstrel and later a Christy's Minstrel, etc. The minstrels made their own wigs—principally of curled hair from mattresses or sofas. A few corks, burned at gas jets or incinerated in an old tin pail, furnished the make-up. Sometimes they “blacked up” with burnt paper. Later, a uniform of sorts was the thing with high hats and coats with chinchilla material around the collars and cuffs. As time went on, nearly all the troupes had fine bands, though small in numbers. The salaries were moderate, traveling by stage coach or railways was cheap, and hardly any baggage to haul. The stage was decorated with a couple of curtains. The profits were enormous for those days. Minstrelsy was a craze, as there was no other entertainment to compete with it.      

      The bill was divided into two parts. Part first, as “Dandy Negroes of the North,” attired in black swallow-tail coats, with brass buttons; white vest, tight black pants with straps that passed under the shoes. This was supposed to be the refined part of the bill. Part second was called "Plantation Darkies of the South." They were attired as field hands, checked shirts, with large collars, striped pants and big shoes. This consisted of plantation songs, grotesque dancing, banjo songs, "Lucy Long," "Old Bob Ridley," "The Cachucha dance", "Banjo Lesson" and wound up with a festival dance for the whole troupe, called a "Walkaround or Grand Walkaround." By the way, in the old days the bone player was the dandy coon of the troupe. He assumed the female character if one was needed and appeared in the then famous “Lucy Long” or "Miss Fanny" specialty, or the “Cachucha” dance.

      About 1845 J. P. Ordway organized Ordway’s Aeolian's in Boston. This company also called themselves the Cow-bell-o-gians, burlesquing the Swiss bell ringers, who had created a furor throughout the country and especially in Boston. The minstrels performed tunes on the cowbells. After Pell’s death the troupe became known as the Morris Brothers’ Minstrels. It was with this troupe that Fred Wilson introduced the Clog dance for the first time with a minstrel troupe thus replacing the Jig dance. Dick Sands, Tim Hayes, Dick Carroll and Ben Goldsmith introduced the clog dance with the minstrel troupes also. Dick Sliter, The John Diamond's, Master Juba, Jim Sanford, Billy Birch, Pete Lane, Dick Carroll, Mickey Warren, Hank the Mason, Tommy Peel, Joe Brown, Williams and others where all Jig Dancers.

      The originators and inventors of minstrelsy's Minstrel Troupes consisted of Dan Emmett, Frank Brower, Billy Whitlock and Richard Pelham, calling themselves The Virginia Minstrels and made their debut at the Franklin Theatre ( This was on 1/1843), and were received with deafening plaudits!. ! During the same week they played one night at the Bowery Amphitheater. Their performances here met with astonishing success, so much so that they were secured at the Park Theatre for two weeks in conjunction with the great dancer, John Diamond. Then they proceeded to Boston for six weeks with wonderful success. Then returned to New York at the Park Theatre.

      Having now fairly introduced their novelty they determined on a trip to England and they immediately embarked for Europe. They were a huge success everywhere, with all returning to the U.S.A. except for Pelham who stayed and opened a saloon. Hence arose the various minstrel companies that were to come into existence. The second troupe to form was the Kentucky Minstrels ( Originally Frank Lynch, T. G. Booth, H. Mestayer and Richardson.) and later said to become the Christy's Minstrels. Another group started in Boston a few weeks after the Virginia Minstrels calling themselves the " Ring and Parker Minstrels" and went to Europe as well within a couple weeks of the Virginia Minstrels. When the Virginia Minstrels returned from Europe, they found, as they had anticipated, minstrel companies performing their skits in abundance all over the country.

      The Original Christy Minstrels were actually the 5th company to form, originally consisting of E. P. Christy, George N. Christy, L. Durand, and T. Vaughn. This company organized in Buffalo and traveled principally through the Southern and Western part of the country. They at first called themselves the Virginia Minstrels too. Soon after Enam Dickinson and Zeke Bachus were added to the company; they then assumed the title of Christy’s Minstrels. They first appeared in Palmo’s Opera House (late Burton’s Theatre) in 1846. On their second appearance in New York, they performed at the Alhambra on Broadway near Prince Street; and from thence to the Society Library ( Later Appleton’s Building), and afterwards at Mechanics Hall, 472 Broadway, at which place they permanently remained from March 1847 to July 1854.

      During the short time that minstrelsy had been in operation, great improvements had been made in a company known as the Ethiopian Serenaders. They organized in Boston, came to New York, and performed with immense success at the Chatham Theatre. They consisted of Frank Germon, G. C. Germon, Tony Winnemore, Quinn, Harry Pell, Moody Stanwood, Harrington, White and others. The next companies of note and styled themselves the Virginia Serenaders (organized in Philadelphia,) consisting of James Sandford, Cool White, Richard Myers, Robert Edwards and others. Next we have another very clever company known as the Harmoneans, consisting of L. V. Crosby, Frank Lynch, Pike, Powers. They traveled principally through the Eastern states with very great success for a long time. Next inline was White’s Serenaders. They organized in 1846 and consisted of C. White, R. White, F. Stanton, W. Smith, H. Neil, and Master Juba. They performed at White’s Melodeon, White’s Varieties, and White’s Opera House, all in the Bowery. They remained here, continually playing, for a space of eleven years—a longer active permanency than ever attained by any similar exhibition; during which time, and at which places, many of the present prominent performers graduated under the favorable auspices of Mr. White’s establishments.

      Late in the 1850's the steamboat would join the farce and one namely called the 'Banjo' steamship had a troupe of minstrels that played the Mississippi River towns. Ben Cotton, Jim Woodruff, Frank Cordella and Joe Mairs were the principal members. By the 1860's, Minstrelsy had been steadily improving, until it became firmly established among our standard amusements of the day and was sought after as much as the opera or drama; in fact, in some respects, far out-rivaling either in point of patronage. Many of the Opera houses and it's dramatic players were seeking, in vain, for positions in minstrel companies.

      After the Civil war, the public's interest started to wane in the previous Blackface Negro antics on the stage. Many Minstrel shows, and they were many, tried to stay afloat by offering gifts etc. to its patrons, but nothing worked. Many more real Blacks were "Blacking Up" or applying burnt cork to their faces at this time. In content, early black minstrelsy differed little from its white counterpart. The public was now flooded with this type of entertainment and was seeking something different. So the minstrel shows were re-vamped to use different music such as Marches, War Songs and Ballads and eventually tossing the old Negro ditties altogether for Spirtuals. In 1859, a new “variety” of entertainment became quite popular in New York and halls formerly used by minstrel companies were leased for these new "variety" shows.      

      With most of the original performers now dead or retired, new owners and managers would step in with new ideas and many fortunes were still to be made by such clever men as Al. G. Field, Neil O’Brien, George Evans, Lew Dockstader, George Primrose, John W. Vogel, J. A. Coburn and Guy Brothers. What didn't help either the earleir minstrel shows was a new female type of French entertainment was gaining momentum, such as Madame Rentz's Female Minstrels who ran with the idea, first performing in 1870 in skimpy costumes and tights and later Lydia Thompson and her British Blondes plus others. Minstrel shows continued, they just changed the players and the Acts. ... Medicine shows to Minstrel shows, then onto Varities and Musical Comedies, to Burlesques, to Vaudeville, to Big Productions like Ziegfeld, back to Female Burlesque, Nightclub dance acts, to Prologues / Idea's for the new movie theatres like Fanchon and Marco's, Strip-Tease (Like Minsky's) and so on.

      Once movie houses came onto the scene and films were getting much more entertaining, the Minstrel player was all but dead, except in the movies and or "Prologues/Idea's" ( Intermission acts) with actors, dancers, comedians who portrayed them such as Buster keaton, Al Jolson, Shirley Temple, Amos and Andy etc. to name a very few.

       Although the Minstrel show's created a stereotypical racial view of the negroe back in the day that still somewhat lingers today ... It did a lot to help the Black man and woman to make a decent, legal and prideful living as compared to many other forms of work available to him in those days. The Minstrel shows and the Cakewalk helped start a path out of poverty thru entertainment that was not otherwise available. Unknown at the time, The slaves of the past were learning how to become entertainers thru this venue, even at the cost of making racial fun of themselves by negatively stereotyping themselves and started learning that the white man would pay money for what they could do. Money can change a lot and some of these Black men and women made a very good living from it that moved their families out of poverty and generations / children to come in higher educations, wealth or business that were not affordable /attainable before. Some people down those that did this (because some were lucky enough to find other ways,) but in retrospec, they did not live during those times and should be hailed as pioneers rather than race traitors, however when the time came to extinquish this type of Performing/acting, it was rightfully so to put pressure on them to stop, but it took a lot of years to repair /erase the damage done to a great race of man... The Negroe!


Birth Place

Birth Date


? Boston, MA ? 1798 (1603 Othello) n/a
(Minstrels Heyday was 1830-1850.)

Dances Used By Minstrels

Non-Dance performers

Music Titles (*=Popular)

Breakdown, the Carl Schwicardi (a noted basso) Boatsman Dance, the
Buck and Wing Charles Henry (a tenor) Buffalo Gals
Cachucha Dance, the Fred 'Ole Bull' Buckley (Violin, Buckley's) Camptown Races*
Clog Dance (Introduced by Fred Wilson, c.1845) Harry Mestayer (1842) Coal Black Rose
Double Polka, Polka Henry Lehr (Comedian) Essence of Old Virginny*
Essence of Old Virginny James W. Glenn, (alto singer) Gumbo Chaff
Grand Trial Dance—”Lucy Long" J. P. Ordway (Piano, Composer, Producer) Jim Along Josey (J. Sanford)
Grapevine Twist, the (by Sanford, 1838) Ole Bull Myers (Violin) Jimmy Crack Korn*
Highland Fling Professor Anderson (1843, London) Jump, Jim Crow* (T.D. Rice)
Jig (Gigue) P. Solomons (accordion) Lucy Long (1st sung by Dan Gardner)
Pattin' Juba R. M. Hooley (Violin, Christy's) Massa's In De Cold Ground
Ring shout S. Samuel Sanford (Comedian) Oh! Dat Watermelon
Virginia Reel | Reels William Penn Lehr (Comedian) Old Black Joe
Walkaround, the (later the Cakewalk)   Piney Woods Jig (Master Diamond)
    Shoo Fly, Don’t Bodder me*
    Sing Darkies Sing
    Sitting On A Rail
    Such a Getting Up Stairs (1830's)
    Swannee River*
    Gypsy - Emmett Miller & His Georgia Crackers

Famous Minstrel performers (* = Dancer)

Al Jolson (1920's) Ed Howard (West's) Jack Herman (1846, Campbell's) Micky Warren * (Jig)
Al Jones (Ordway) Eddie Foy Jack Huntley (Campbell's) Moffit and Bartholomeu (Varieties)
Ambrose Thayer (Ordway) Edwin Kelly (Ordway) James A. Bland Moody Stanwood
Andy Leavitt (Varieties) Edwin P. Christy (retired 1854) James Barton* (1920's) Morris Brothers (Ordway)
Archie Hughes Enam M. Dickinson James Buckley (Buckley's) Nelse Seymour (Nightingales)
Barney Burns Eph Horn James Carter Nelson Kneass
Barney Williams* (Jig) F. Stanton (1846) James Lynch Pete Lane* (Jig)
Ben Cotton (steamboat) F. Solomon Japanese Tommy* (a colored Dwarf) Pike
Ben Goldsmith (1845) F. Whittaker Jerry Bryant (1847) Powers
Bert Williams Francis Wilson Jim Crow* (Rice credited) Press Eldridge
Bill & Jim Budworth Frank Brower* (1842) Jim Farrell Quinn
Bill La Conta Frank Cordella (steamboat) Jim Sandford* (Jig, 1838) R. Bishop Buckley (Buckley's)
Billy Arlington (Varieties) Frank Diamond* (1842) Jim Woodruff (steamboat) Ralph Keeler
Billy Birch (1850, Jig, Fellow's) Frank Germon Jimmy O'Connell* (1842) Richard White
Billy Kersands Frank Lynch* (1842) Joe Brown (Jig) Robert 'Bob' Edwards
Billy Manning Frank Moran Joe Mairs (steamboat) Sable Sisters (related to bros.)
Bob Hart (Varieties) Fred Wilson (Clog, 1845, Morris) Joe Sweeney* (1837) Sam Lucas
Bobby Newcomb Fulton Meyers (played Dinah Rose) John Adams (Campbell's) Sam Sharpley
Buffalo Boys, the G. Harrington John C. Rice Sam Wells (1850, Fellow's)
Butterbeans & Susie G. Swayne Buckley (Buckley's) John Diamond* (1842, a negro) Signor Rafael Abecco
Byron Christy G. W. Pelham* (1842) John Dudley T. 'Pickaninny' Coleman* (1842)
Carroll Johnson (West's, 1898) George B. Mack (West's) John Mulligan Thomas Dilward (Japenese Tommy)
Charles Campbell George Charles John Rea (1848) Thomas 'T.D.' Dartmouth Rice *
Charles Jenkins* George Christy (1840s) John Smith* (1842) Tim Hayes (1845)
Charley Backus George H. Primrose Joseph D. Murphy (1846, Cmpbl's) Tom Bleakly
Charley Fox George Kunkel Kelly & Leon Tom Briggs (1850, Fellow's, Campbell's)
Charley White* (1849) George Powers Leicester Tom G. Booth* (1842)
Chauncey Olcott George Washington Dixon* Lew Dockstader Tom Lewis (West's)
Cool White Grawpner, Mr. (1799) Lew Simmons Tom 'Master Floyd' Moxley (Fannie)
Dan Emmett* (1842) Gustave Bideaux Little Mac* (Bryant's. Dwarf) Tony Hernandez
Dan Rice H. Neil (1846) Luke West (1846, Campbell's) Tony Pastor (Varieties)
Dan Gardner (Varieties) H. S. Rumsey L. V. Crosby Tony Winnemore
Dave Wambold Hank the Mason (Jig) M. Stanwood Unsworth and Eugene
David Raymond (1846) Harriett Phillips (1848) Master Chestnut* (1842) W. Smith (1846)
Dick Carroll* (aka Master Marks) Harry Leslie (Varieties) Master John Diamond (a white man) W. White (1846)
Dick Pelham* (1842) Harry Maxwell (West's) Master Juba* (1846, White's Ser.) W. B. Donaldson
Dick Sands (1845) Henry Wood (1852, retired 1854) Master Marks* (Dick Carroll) Wallace King
Dick Silter* (Jig) Hi Rumsey (1850, Fellow's) Master Pierce* (1842) Weber and Fields
Dick Sweeny (Whites) Hoffman* (1842) Master Tommy J. Peel* (Campbell's) Western Sisters (1857)
Dick Van Bremen* (1842) Ida Aldridge Matt Peel* (1846, Campbell's, d.1859) William Horn
Dinah Rose (aka Fulton Myers) Ira Paine Max Irwin (Campbell's) William 'Billy Whitlock'* (1842)
E. F. Dixey J. B. Donniker (1850, Fellow's) Max Zorer (Campbell's) William 'Presley' Burt (1867-2/23/1955*)
E. N. Slocum J. Kavanagh Mert Sexton (Campbell's) W. W. Newcomb (Campbell's)
Ed Deaves J. L. Carncross Mike McKenna (Varieties) Zip Coon (by G.W. Dixon)
  J. Rudolph      
Note: Yes, There were two Master John Diamond's, one was white in Blackface and the other was black in blackface.

Minstrel Troupe's (in creation order)

Virginia Minstrels (First) Sliter’s Empire Minstrels Morris Brothers, Pell & Huntley’s
Kentucky Minstrels (#2) Washington Uterpians Fox & War- den’s Campbell (EU)
Ring and Parker Minstrels (#3) Ordway’s Aeolian's (may be 1845?) Mrs. Matt. Peel’s Campbell’s (1859)
Congo Minstrels (#4) (Later Buckley's Serenaders) Pierce’s Minstrels Hooley & Campbell’s (was G. Christies)
Original Christy Minstrels (#5) Fellows’ Minstrels Converse’s Campbell Minstrels (1860)
Buckley’s New Orleans Serenaders (was Congo) Horn & White’s Opera Troupe Cow-bell-o-gians (aka Ordway's, Morris Bros.)
Ethiopian Serenaders (#6) Kimberly’s Campbell Minstrels Carncross and Dixey’s Minstrels (1861)
Virginia Serenaders (#7) Norris’ Campbell Minstrels (1852) Sam Sharpley’s Ironclads (1862)
Harmoneans, the (#8) New York Serenaders Cal Wagner’s Pontoons (1862)
White’s Serenaders (#9) Raynor’s Serenaders Kelly and Leon’s Minstrels (1862)
Sable Harmonists #10 (1846) Murphy, West & Peel’s San Francisco Minstrels
Original Campbell Minstrels #11 (1847) Backus’ Minstrels Callender's Georgia Minstrels (1866 & 72)
Sable Brothers Minstrels #12 (1848) George Christy’s & Wood’s (1853) Haverly's Mastadons (1877)
Kunkel's Minstrels (later Nightingale) Perham’s Burlesque Opera Troupe (1854)  
Fellows Minstrels (1849) Pierce and Raynor’s Christy’s (1855, EU)  
Nightingale Serenaders Bryant’s Minstrels (1856)  
Sandford’s Opera Troupe Rumsey & Newcomb’s Campbell (1857)  

Nightclubs, Saloons etc.


Sheet Music Covers

Minerva Rooms African Grove Theater (1821, NY)  
Niblo's Saloon American Museum (1842)  
Vauxhall Garden (1840, NY) Adelphi Theatre (1843, London)  
  Arcade Garden (1842)  
  Bowery Theatre (1832)  


Chatham Theatre (1842)


12/30/1799 - (Orinoko) Act II, Song of the
Negro Boy in Character (by Mr. Grawpner)
Eleventh Street Opera House Uncle Tom's Cabin
Federal Street Theatre (1799, Boston) Orioles 2nd Annual Minstrel Revue
1848 - The Bohemian Girl (Harriet Phillips) Franklin Theatre (1838)  
1857 - Three Fast Men (Western Sisters) Old Park Theatre (NYC)  
1920's - Venuses (Fanchon & Marco Idea) Pic Palmo’s Opera House  
  Peale’s Chinese Museum (Philadelphia)  
  Perham’s (NYC)  
  St. James Theatre (1850s)  
  Temperance Hall (Philadelphia)  
  Tryon’s Circus (NYC)  
  Welch’s National Circus (Philadelphia)  
Video Clips (pop-up)

Films with Minstrels or Blackface


Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1901 - Off to Bloomingdales Asylum 12/30/1799 - Russell’s Boston Gazette
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1914 - Rounders (Billy Gilbert in blackface) 4/28/1860 - New York Clipper (C. White)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1920 - Neighbors, the (Buster Keaton in blackface) 8/1/1874 - New York Clipper (Keeler)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1921 - Playhouse, the (Buster Keaton in blackface) 1881 - Burnt Cork Or The Amateur Minstrel (Frank Dumont)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1924 - Dixie Handicap, the (Otis Harlan in blackface) 1911 - Monarchs of Minstrelsy (W. Leroy Rice)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1927 - College, the (Buster Keaton in blackface) 12/19/1914 - New York Clipper (Frank Dumont)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1927 - The Jazz Singer 12/26/1936 - Life Magazine
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1931 - Pardon Us (Laurel & Hardy in blackface) $ 1964 - Jazz Dance (Marshall Stearns)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1931 - Universal Newsreel: First Live ... 2004 - Early Minstrel Banjo (Joe Weidlich)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1932 - Dream House (Bing Crosby in blackface) 2006 - Black Like You (Strausbaugh)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1933 - Roman Scandals (Eddie Cantor) Jump Jim Crow: Lost Plays, Lyrics
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1934 - Kid Millions  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1934 - Here Comes The Navy (James Cagney in blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1935 - Littlest Rebel, the (Shirley Temple in blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1935 - Harmony Lane  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1936 - Dimples (Frank Morgan in blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1936 - Showboat (Irene Dunn in blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1936 - Singing Kid, The (Jolson)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1936 - Swingtime (Astaire's 'Bojangles of Harlem')  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1937 - Artists & Models (Martha Raye in blackface)


Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1939 - Babes In Arms (Judy, Mickey and Patsy in Blackface, Minstrels) The 'Amos and Andy' series (Radio & TV)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1939 - On Your Toes 1946 - Fred Waring Show
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1939 - Rose of Washington Square (Al Jolson in Blackface) 1950 - Vernon and Ryan Minstrel Show (Clip)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1939 - Swanee River 1970's British TV - Black and White Minstrels Clip 1 | Clip 2 |
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1941 - Babes on Broadway (Garland in blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1942 - Daring Young Man (Joe E. Brown in Blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1942 - Holiday Inn  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1942 - Yankee Doodle Dandy (Huston, DeCamp in Blackface)

Animation / Cartoons

Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1943 - Dixie 1932 - Plane Dumb
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1943 - This Is The Army 1942 - Any Bonds Today? (Bugs Bunny)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1944 - Minstrel Man 1942 - Fresh Hare (Bugs Bunny)
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window.
1946 - Al Jolson Story  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1949 - Always Leave Them Laughing (Milton Bearle in Blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1949 - You're My Everything (Dan Daily in Blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1951 - Yes Sir, Mr. Bones  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1953 - Torch Song (Joan Crawford in blackface)  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 1967 - A Really Big Chorus Line  
Viewable thru a Youtube Video Pop-up window. 2008 - Tropic Thunder (Robert Downey Jr. in blackface)  

Misc., Research words to help your searches

Afterpieces Cross-Fire Jokes Lower-pitched minstrel banjo tunings Olio Edward II (England)
Antedate Darky or Darkies Medicine Show Pantaloons (trousers) Troubador
Burnt Cork Ethiopian delineators Minstrelsy Pick or Pickaninny Poets / Poetry
Circus, the Ethiopian minstrelsy Negro Oddities "Sambo" Jeffery Chauncer
Cork Professor Interloculator (nterlocutor) Nigger Spirituals (known as jubilees) Wandering Minstrels
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Jewsharp Uncle Remus Stephen Foster  
Court Poet Battle of Hastings Song of Roland Livery  

  • NOTE: When Cork Is King: New Crossfire Conversations, End Gags and Retorts For Male, Female And Mixed Minstrels; Monologues, Skits, and Stump Speeches by Wade Stratton. Chicago: T S Denison 1921,
  • Minstrel Laughs: Monologues, Afterpieces, Interlocutor-Endman Patter, Olio's, Cross-Fire Jokes and Gags, and Practical Hints for Minstrel Show Production by Vance Clifford. Chicago: T S Denison 1927
  • 1931 - Universal Newsreel: First Live Telecast Of Vaudeville. The image on the small round television screen is blurry but a thrill for viewers, and holds promise for the future. (Innovation, Invention, Technology)
  • 1967 - Universal Newsreel: A Really Big Chorus Line An upcoming show about the famous "Beef Trust" girls of vaudeville days auditions dancers who must weigh over 200 pounds to qualify.

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